What are the different types of book editors?

Different types of book editors play distinct roles in the publishing process. Developmental editors focus on story structure and content, ensuring a compelling narrative. Line editors refine writing style and sentence flow, enhancing readability. Copyeditors meticulously check grammar, punctuation and consistency. Proofreaders give the final polish, catching any remaining errors. Translation editors bridge language barriers for global readers. Collectively, these editors contribute to creating well-crafted and engaging books that resonate with audiences.

This article explains the types of book editors to give you valuable insights into their roles, when to hire them and how much to pay when seeking their book editing services.

Developmental editor

A developmental editor plays a pivotal role in the publishing process among the various types of book editors. Their primary focus is on the big picture — the overall structure, argument, evidence, plot, characters and pacing. Think of them as the architects of a novel, ensuring that the story’s foundation is solid and captivating. They offer constructive feedback and diagnose character inconsistencies and narrative flow, guiding authors toward creating a compelling and well-rounded story that resonates with readers. A developmental editor aims to investigate three factors:

  • goals of the manuscript
  • relevant questions within the manuscript
  • summary advice and detailed feedback

When should you hire a developmental editor?

Developmental editing is usually the first editing process preparing a text for publication. It would be best to consider hiring a developmental editor at various early stages of your writing process to ensure your manuscript reaches its full potential. Here are key points to help you decide when to engage a developmental editor:

  • Once you have finished writing your manuscript, it is a good time to hire a developmental editor.
  • If you are seeking traditional publishing, it is wise to consult a developmental editor before submitting your work to literary agents or publishers.
  • If you are stuck while writing, a developmental editor can offer guidance if you are facing writer’s block or grappling with a particular aspect of your story. Their expertise can help you overcome challenges and advance your writing.
  • If you have received feedback from beta readers or critique partners, a developmental editor can assist in revising your manuscript based on their input.
  • If you are concerned about specific aspects of your manuscript, such as character arcs, dialogue, evidence analysis or world-building, a developmental editor can focus on those areas and provide targeted suggestions.
  • If you are committed to improving your writing skills and crafting a compelling narrative, a developmental editor can be a valuable mentor.

How much should you budget for a developmental editor?

The various types of book editors have their set pay rates depending on the scope of work and experience. Developmental editors endorsed by the Chartered Institute of Editing and Proofreading and experienced in various editing types generally charge rates starting from £39.90 per hour. The Editorial Freelancers Association (USA) outlines developmental editing rate ranges based on the type of text:

  • academic developmental editing: $50.0–$76.5 per hour at 4–8 pages per hour
  • business developmental editing: $55.0–$72.5 per hour at 4–10 pages per hour
  • fiction developmental editing: $50–$60 per hour at 5–10 pages per hour
  • non-fiction developmental editing: $55–$70 per hour at 4–7 pages per hour

These rates pricing reflect their expertise, training and experience in the field. It is essential to be cautious of significantly lower estimates, as they might correlate with a lower editing standard.

Line editor

Line editors play an important role in refining your manuscript. Their primary focus lies on the structure and flow of your text, ensuring that it reads smoothly and cohesively. The scope of a line editor’s services encompasses a comprehensive sweep of your text, offering enhancements that elevate the overall reading experience. They pay keen attention to sentence structure, ensuring it is varied and engaging. They adjust word choices for accuracy, clarity and rhythm, ensuring your prose resonates with your intended audience. Line editors also detect and rectify inconsistencies in tone and style, thereby maintaining a consistent and coherent authorial voice.

When should you hire a line editor?

Line editors usually work after the text has undergone developmental editing. Here is a closer look at when hiring a line editor is beneficial:

  • Line editing typically takes place after you have finished the initial draft of your manuscript.
  • Hiring a line editor is crucial to presenting a polished and professional final product if you submit your work to literary agents, publishers or self-publishing platforms.
  • If you have a specific writing style or tone you want to maintain, a line editor can ensure consistency throughout the manuscript.
  • Line editors provide valuable feedback that helps you understand your strengths and areas for improvement as a writer.
  • If you are looking to elevate your prose, improve sentence flow and enhance the readability of your work, a line editor can provide the necessary finesse.
  • If you have written a captivating story or informative content, a line editor can help ensure that your prose is clear, engaging and keeps the reader hooked from start to finish.

How much should you budget for a line editor?

The suggested hourly rates the Chartered Institute of Editing and Proofreading (UK) set for line editing begin at £39.90. The Editorial Freelancers Association (USA) outlines line editing rate ranges based on the type of text:

  • academic line editing: $45–$65 per hour at 4–8 pages per hour
  • business line editing: $50–$70 per hour at 5–8 pages per hour
  • fiction line editing: $45–$60 per hour at 5–8 pages per hour
  • non-fiction line editing: $50–$65 per hour at 4–7 pages per hour

These rates are proposed by skilled editors in the field who can substantiate them based on their proficiency, training and experience. If you come across a lower estimate for line editing, it could potentially indicate a compromise in the quality of the service provided. However, the editor’s remuneration encompasses more than meets the eye. Apart from the core tasks of editing and crafting editorial reports, they undertake comprehensive readings of the entire text. This thorough reading allows them to ensure uniformity in tone, voice and style across smaller text units such as sentences and paragraphs. Although line editing focuses on the sentence and paragraph level, it does not isolate them from the overall narrative context.


The copyeditor, a crucial role among the types of book editors, specialises in refining the text to ensure clarity, correctness and consistency. Their primary objective is to enhance the readability and coherence of the manuscript while adhering to the conventions of grammar, punctuation and style. Additionally, copyeditors verify that the text adheres to a consistent style guide, ensuring that punctuation, capitalisation and styling are uniform throughout the document. Through proofreading, they catch even errors that might have been missed during the writing and revising process, ensuring a professional and polished final product.

When should you hire a copyeditor?

When your manuscript reaches the point where the content is refined and the narrative is cohesive, it is time to bring in a copyeditor. This stage comes after developmental and line editing when the focus shifts from the broader aspects of structure and content to the finer details of grammar, syntax, spelling and style. Here is when you should consider hiring a copyeditor:

  • Hire a copyeditor when your manuscript is in its final draft form, indicating that it has already undergone self-editing and developmental editing.
  • A copyeditor ensures consistency across the entire manuscript if your manuscript has undergone significant changes during the developmental and line editing phases.
  • Hiring a copyeditor gives your manuscript the final polish before submission to agents, publishers or self-publishing platforms.
  • Copyeditors finalise the presentation of the text, ensuring that sentences are clear, concise and properly structured.
  • A copyeditor helps maintain consistent style, formatting and tone, enhancing the overall readability and professionalism of your work.

How much should you budget for a copyeditor?

The current hourly rates for copyediting, as recommended by the Chartered Institute of Editing and Proofreading (UK), start from £34.70. The Editorial Freelancers Association (USA) outlines copyediting rate ranges based on the type of text:

  • academic copyediting: $40–$60 per hour at 4–8 pages per hour
  • business copyediting: $50–$60 per hour at 5–10 pages per hour
  • fiction copyediting: $40–$50 per hour at 5–10 pages per hour
  • non-fiction copyediting: $45–$60 per hour at 5–8 pages per hour

Professional editors can substantiate these hourly rates based on their expertise, training and extensive experience. If you encounter a lower estimate for copyediting services, it could indicate a lower quality of editing. Notably, the scope of a copyeditor’s work extends beyond the surface. While they certainly engage in copyediting tasks such as text refinement and style sheet compilation, their process begins with a comprehensive reading of the entire text. This initial reading allows them to gauge the appropriate level of editorial intervention required.


A proofreader, categorised among the various types of book editors, holds a crucial role in the final stages of preparing a manuscript for publication. The primary focus of a proofreader is to review the text to identify and rectify errors, inconsistencies and inaccuracies. This vital step ensures that the book achieves a polished and professional appearance, free from typographical, grammatical and formatting mistakes that might distract readers from the content. While developmental editors, line editors and copyeditors address broader structural and stylistic concerns, proofreaders dive into the fine details contributing to the book’s overall quality.

When should you hire a proofreader?

While different types of book editors contribute uniquely to the editorial process, their involvement at different stages can greatly impact the overall quality of a book. This section will focus on when it is most appropriate to enlist the expertise of a proofreader, shedding light on the timing that optimises the proofreading process.

  • A proofreader’s role is crucial when your manuscript is in its final stages after it has completed developmental editing, line editing and copyediting.
  • If you have made any revisions or updates to your manuscript after previous editing stages, a proofreader ensures that these changes have been incorporated seamlessly and have not introduced new errors.
  • Hiring a proofreader should ideally occur before the book goes into production or is submitted for self-publishing.
  • Once the book has been formatted for print or digital publication, engaging a proofreader is an opportune moment.

How much should you budget for a proofreader?

The present hourly charges recommended by the Chartered Institute of Editing and Proofreading (UK) for proofreading commence at £29.85. The Editorial Freelancers Association (USA) outlines proofreading rate ranges based on the type of text:

  • academic proofreading: $40–$55 per hour at 6–10 pages per hour
  • business proofreading: $45.0–$57.5 per hour at 7–10 pages per hour
  • fiction proofreading: $35–$45 per hour at 6–14 pages per hour
  • non-fiction proofreading: $40–$50 per hour at 7–10 pages per hour

Within these price ranges, proficient proofreaders, backed by their expertise, training and experience, provide their services. If you receive a lower quote for proofreading, it is worth considering whether the service aligns with the expected editing quality.

Translation editor

A translation editor is a specialised type of book editor who focuses on ensuring the accuracy, fluency and cultural relevance of translated content. Their role is crucial when translating works from one language to another, as maintaining the essence and intended meaning of the original text is paramount. Translation editors deeply understand the source and target languages and the cultural nuances and idiomatic expressions that can affect translation. Their primary goal is to ensure the translated work reads naturally and coherently in the target language while remaining faithful to the author’s original intent. The scope and purpose of a translation editor’s services encompass a range of tasks beyond conventional editing.

When should you hire a translation editor?

To ensure that your written work reaches a broader audience and resonates across languages and cultures, a translation editor becomes an invaluable asset. Their expertise in bridging linguistic and cultural gaps can elevate your content to new heights of clarity and impact. Therefore, let us explore the key instances when hiring a translation editor is not just beneficial but also essential:

  • If you want to expand your readership to different language-speaking regions, a translation editor can help you effectively convey your message while maintaining the essence of your original text.
  • When your content needs to be culturally sensitive and relevant to your target audience, a translation editor ensures that idiomatic expressions, metaphors and cultural references are adapted appropriately.
  • For authors who intend to publish their work globally, a translation editor ensures that your writing is accurate and well-received in various linguistic and cultural contexts.
  • In collaborative projects involving contributors from different linguistic backgrounds, a translation editor ensures that the final piece maintains a consistent voice and message across languages.
  • If your writing involves technical or specialised terminology, an expert translation editor can accurately convey complex concepts while ensuring clarity in the target language.

How much should you budget for a translation editor?

While no standardised rates are specifically designated for translation editing, it is essential to anticipate a higher cost than copyediting. The current hourly rates for copyediting, as suggested by the Chartered Institute of Editing and Proofreading (UK), start at £34.70. In the case of translation editing, premium pricing is warranted due to its encompassing nature, which includes copyediting as one of its integral components.

What should you consider when hiring these types of book editors?

When hiring different types of book editors, such as developmental editors, line editors, copyeditors, proofreaders and translation editors, consider several crucial factors. They will help you make the right choice for your manuscript. Here is a concise guide to help you navigate the process:

Ask how the editors provide feedback

Some editors provide an editorial report as a part of the developmental editing service. Find out what they include in their report and how they convey their suggestions. This is important because some people may respond better to encouraging notes, while others prefer direct in-text suggestions.

Check what these types of book editors read and edit the most

Find out what the editors’ specialism is. Knowing what genre they read and edit most often will tell if editing your text is within the editor’s skillset. Examples of their past work and clients’ testimonials will demonstrate a track record of working with the genre of your choice, which is a good reassurance that they will be able to deliver a valuable contribution.

Check on their online presence and portfolio

Begin by exploring the online presence of editing services. Reputable types of book editors often have well-designed websites that provide comprehensive information about their offerings, editing process and experience. Look for detailed portfolios showcasing their previous work and areas of expertise.

Consult industry affiliations

Check if these types of book editors are affiliated with recognised editing organisations. Such affiliations indicate a commitment to ethical and professional standards. Here is a list of the certified editing associations where you can get affordable editing services:

Final thoughts

The roles played by the different types of book editors are vital to creating a seamless journey from manuscript to published work. From the developmental editor who shapes the narrative’s foundation to the translation editor who bridges cultural gaps, each editor contributes expertise to ensure the final product resonates with readers. Understanding these distinct roles empowers you to make informed decisions when seeking editing services.

By harnessing the power of these book editors, you can confidently navigate the publishing competition, knowing that your story will reach its audience in its most polished and impactful form. Contact me for a free sample edit (and remember to use my early bird discount) to determine if your manuscript may benefit from developmental editing. If you want to hear more from me, including self-editing and writing tips, follow me on Mastodon, Twitter, Facebook and LinkedIn or join my newsletter.

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I am an editor, indexer and a lifelong lover of literature with a PhD in literary history. I am an Intermediate Member of the Chartered Institute of Editing and Proofreading, a student member of the Society of Indexers and a vetted partner of the Alliance of Independent Authors.